Serbia and Montenegro Identity Card

Country name:
~ conventional form: Serbia and Montenegro
~ local form: Srbija i Crna Gora
Area: 102,350 sq km
Coastline: 199 km
Highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Population: 10,829,175
Density: 105/km2
Population growth rate: 0.03%
Languages: Serbian and Albanian
Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Government type: republic
Capital: Belgrade
GDP - per capita: $2,400
Inflation rate: 8.8%
Currency (code): new Yugoslav dinar (YUM)
Vehicle Country Id-Code: SCG
Calling code: +381
Internet country code: .cs
Time Zone: + 1.0 H


The Cathedral of Saint Sava, Belgrade

The Republic of Monte Negro is a democratic, social and ecological state and a small republic within the political union of Serbia and Monte Negro in the Balkans on the Adriatic Sea. Monte Negro was under the rule of a succession of dynasties and rulers and is now one of two constituent parts of the state union of Serbia and Monte Negro bordering Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska), and Albania.


With the high peaks running along the borders of Monte Negro common with Kosovo and Albania, the country is a fraction of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, which is a region at an elevation of 1,000 meters above sea level. The speciality of the mountains of Monte Negro are that they are the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2,000 meters in elevation, hosting Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches a height of 2,522 meters.
The longest beach in Monte Negro is the Velika Plaza in the Ulcinj mountain that rises for around 13,000 m and the largest lake being the Lake Skadar (391 km² ). The deepest Canyon is that of the Tara River (1,300 m) with the Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor) being the biggest bay.


The climate is as varied as the country itself; while the north enjoys a continental climate with cold winters and hot summers, the central region combines the best of the continental and Mediterranean climates. The southern zone boasts of an Adriatic climate on the coastline, however, the inland regions experience hot and dry summers with heavy snowfalls during winters.



Ostrog Monastery

The ancient history of the republic dates back to the time when the Monte Negrin tribes were united under the semi-independent dukedom of Duklja around the 10th century which was transformed into an independent state almost a century later. The kingdom was a tributary to the Byzantine Empire and it is from where the medieval kingdom of Serbian Great Zupan arose.
The period between the two World Wars saw the Yugoslav government becoming a toy in the hands of King Alexander, the grandson of Monte Negro's king Nicholas. It is him who worked against the idea of Monte Negro as an independent state from Serbia and Monte Negro. However, Monte Negro contributed massively in the war against the Axis Powers and became one of the six republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; this strengthened Monte Negro on the economy front - the large aids from federal funds and a flourishing tourist industry being responsible.
After the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia broke up, it gave way to the re-constitution of Serbia and Monte Negro in 1992. The new constitution was named the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), though the United Nations and the United States went against it; they denied accepting FRY as a successor of the former Yugoslavia. The reason being the ongoing Yugoslav wars preventing the agreement to reach the disposition of federal assets and liabilities, it also barred FRY from accessing a number of international institutions until a few years, after which it was finally re-admitted to the United Nations on the onset of the New Millennium. Two years later, Serbia and Monte Negro formed a new agreement regarding the continued co-operation, which brought forth numerous changes, including the end of the name Yugoslavia. Finally, in the year 2003, the federal parliament of Yugoslavia gave rise to a loose commonwealth; it was simply named Serbia and Monte Negro and a new Constitutional Charter was assigned to frame the governance of the country.

Sveti Stefan


The Milosevic-era gave rise to certain mismanagements within the country that affected directly its economy and caused damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry; in 1999 it was just the half of what it was in 1990. October 2000 onwards, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government brought in the stabilisation measures and market reform programs.
The smaller republic of Monte Negro maintains its own central bank. The official currency of the country is euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar. The country also collects customs tariffs and manages its own budget. The complexity risen because of the political relationships between Serbia and Monte Negro have slowed down the progress in privatisation with legal uncertainty suppressing property rights and scarcity of foreign-investment besides a deficit in substantial foreign trade forcing the economy from developing to its fullest extent. However, recent arrangements with the IMF for the requirements in fiscal discipline have taken the front row in policy formation, though severe unemployment remains the chief problem for the entire region.



Upon the context of whether to stay with Yugoslavia in 1992, 95.96% of the votes went for being with the federation with Serbia. In 1996, the government under Milo Đukanović had cut-off the ties between Monte Negro and Serbia. The current and previous governments of Monte Negro are still continuing the policies before independence.
2002 saw Serbia and Monte Negro signing a new agreement upon the context of continued cooperation and in 2003 the Yugoslav federation was dismissed to give way to the state union of Serbia and Monte Negro. The possible referendum for Monte Negro's independence since then has been postponed until 2006.
The Parliament of Monte Negro has adopted a new flag on July 12, 2004 along with a new anthem; this time it is the gold coat of the arms of King Nikola on red field with a gold border for the flag and "Oh the bright dawn of May" for the anthem. The national day of the republic is 13th of July.




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