Ecuador Identity Card

Country name:
~ conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
~ conventional short form: Ecuador
~ local long form: Republica del Ecuador
~ local short form: Ecuador
Area: 283,560 sq km
Coastline: 2,237 km
Highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Population: 13,363,593
Density: 47/km2
Population growth rate: 1.24%
Official Language: Spanish
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Government type: republic
Capital: Quito
GDP - per capita: $3,700
Inflation rate: 2%
Currency (code): US dollar (USD)
Vehicle Country Id-Code: EC
Calling code: +593
Internet country code: .ec
Time Zone: - 5.0 H


Ecuador is one of the smallest countries amidst the rugged Andean highlands of the South American continent. The country’s political jurisdiction includes the Galápagos Islands or the Archipelago de Colón and together, officially, they are referred as the Republic of Ecuador. The ecological beauty and diversity of the both the Pacific islands and mainland of Ecuador at northwestern part of the continent create an eternal appeal to attract any tourist. The country is neighbour to Colombia on the north and Peru on the east and south sides. The gentle waves of the Pacific Ocean drench the western frontiers of Ecuador. Quito is the capital city of the country and Guayaquil is Ecuador's main port.


Ecuador derives its name from the Spanish expression of the country’s proximity to the line of Ecuador. The country terrain is enriched with some out-of-the-world volcanic landscapes and dense rainforests. The topographical feature of Ecuador is stretched from the beauties of the Galapagos Islands, to the Pacific Coast, up to the Andes Mountains and down to the world’s largest tropical rainforest, the Amazon Basin. Broadly, one can divide the regions of the country into four major categories. The Costa is spread across the low-lying Pacific coast that complements the other region comprising of the Galápagos Islands, some 1,000 km west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. The Sierra or the towering Andean ranges roll down the terrain of Ecuador in two ranges and reach their greatest altitude in the snow-capped volcanic peaks of Chimborazo (20,577 ft/6,272 m) and Cotopaxi (19,347 ft/5,897 m). The Oriente signifies the greenery and wetness of the Amazonian rainforest areas. In between the forests and highlands exist the residential and most populated regions of Ecuador that is home to the main cities.

Otavalo Market

The fascinating history of Ecuador makes it an incredible travel destination. The mysterious Inca ruins and quaint Indian villages are evidences of an era when these ancient but advanced indigenous tribes reigned over the regions of present day Ecuador. It is believed that the Kingdom of Quito came into existence around 1000 but the Spanish aggression of 1534, led by Francisco Pizarro gives the first recorded timeline for Ecuador. Spanish soldiers conquered Quito and the whole region became part of the Spanish vice Royalty of Peru. After couple of centuries of suppressions and revolutionary attempts, Ecuador finally achieved independence in 1822 from the Spanish under the leadership of Antonio Jose de Sucre. Together with Colombia, Panama and Venezuela, it formed the Republic of Gran Colombia in 1819 but separated and emerged as independent nation in 1830. Till 1995, it continued to loose territories to its neighbouring country and a series of political instability marked the twentieth century. Ecuador returned to civilian government in 1979.

Tortuga Bay on Santa Cruz - Galapagos

The economy of Ecuador is highly reliant on the petroleum treasure fields of the country that have been the backbone of the financial transactions for decades. However, things took a gloomy turn after oil prices fluctuated heavily and Ecuador was hit too. International market instability and the natural disaster of El Nino aggravated the crisis. Stringent fiscal policies and balanced development programs on behalf of the Government of Ecuador brought the situation under control and the GDP improved.
The political set up of Ecuador is supported by a constructive constitution and the legislative functions with 100-member strong unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional. The members, along with the president and the vice president of the country are elected for four years terms. The Supreme Court or Corte Suprema heads the judiciary of Ecuador.




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